Slave Dynasty (1206 - 1290)
- Slave Dynasty was also called Ilbari Dynasty, Yamini Dynasty of Mamluk Dynasty.
- Qutub-ud-din Aibak was a slave of Muhammed Ghori and he founded the Slave Dynasty in 1206 AD.
- Aibak was the first Muslim ruler of India.
- The capital of Qutub-ud-din Aibak was at Lahore
- He was known as ‘Lakh Baksh’ or ‘giver of lakhs’ or ‘giver of favors’ for his magnanimity.
- Hasan Nizami was a famous historian in the court of the Aibak.
- Qutub-ud-din Aibak started the construction of Qutub Minar in 1199 in Delhi in memory of the Sufi saint Quaja Qutub - ud-din Bhaktiar Kaki.
- Its construction was completed by Ithumish. It is a five-storied building.
- Qutub-ud-din Aibak died in 1210 by falling from horseback while playing Polo.
- After the death of Qutubuddin, Aram Shah ascended the throne but he was deposed by Ilthumish and crowned himself the Sulthan
- During the period of Ilthumish (1210-1236) Chengizkhan, the Mongolian conqueror attacked India (1221).
- Ilthumish is considered as the real founder of the Delhi Sultanate.
- Ilthumish was the first Sulthan of Delhi to get recognition of the Khalif of Bagdad.
- Ilthumish was also the first Sulthan to make Delhi his capital.
- He issued a purely Arabic coinage of Silver and was the first to do so.
- Coins introduced by Ilthumish, ‘Silver Thanka’ and ‘Copper Jital’ were the two basic coins of the Sultanate period.
- He organized the ‘Chalisa’ or the famous Turkish forty to help him in the administration.
- Iltumish completed the construction of Qutub Minar.
- The revenue system of the Sultanate ‘Iqta system’, was introduced by Ilthumish.
- Ilthumish was succeeded by his son Ruknuddin Firoz Shah. But he was later executed and Razia became the sultan (daughter of Ilthumish)
- Sulthana Raziya, the only women ruler of, the Sultanate came to power in 1236 and reigned till 1240. Sulthana Raizya rejected the Pardah, she adorned the male dress and held open courts.
- On October 14, 1240, both Razia and Altunia who earlier raised arms against Razia but later joined with her were, beheaded at Kaithal.
- After Raizya Behran Shah (1240 - 42) Allaud-din- Masudshah (1242 - 46) and Naziruddin Muhammad (1246 - 1266) ruled and Balban, the founder of the second Ilban dynasty, became the Sulthan.
- Ghiasuddin Balban ‘a slave water career, huntsman, noble, statesman became the Sulthan of Delhi in 1266 and continued in power till 1686 AD.
- Balban is considered as the founder of the Second Ilbary Dynasty.
- Balban described himself as ‘shadow of God’ or the ‘viceregent of God on Earth’ (Zil-i-illahi)
- Balban because of his autocratic rule is considered a ‘typical oriental despot’.
- The Chalisa or forty established by Ilthumish was abolished by Balban.
- His policies are considered to be ‘Draconian’.
- He started the Iranian system of Sajda and Piabos.
- He was a patron of men of letters and showed special favor to the poet Amir Khusrau.
- After Balban’s death in 1286, Kayqubad (1287 -90) became the Sulthan.
- Madhavacharya of the Dwaita Philosophy got help from Balban.
- Balban’s Tomb is situated in Delhi. It was constructed by Balban himself.
- Kayqubad was the last Slave Sulthan. (Kayumars who ruled for a term of three months was actually the last Slave Sulthan. He was killed by Jalaluddin Khilji) and founded the Khilji Dynasty.
Khilji Dynasty (1290 -1320)
- Khilji dynasty was founded by Malik Firoz in 1290 and assumed the title Jalaluddin Khilji (1290- 96)
- In 1292 the Mongols under Abdulla accepted defeat from Jalaluddin Khilji.
- Alauddin Khilji, the nephew of Jalaluddin Khilji, killed him after his victory on Devagiri in 1296.
- Alauddin Khilji’s early name was Ali Gurushap.
- He became the Sulthan in 1296 AD and ruled till 1316 AD.
- In 1303 Alauddin Khilji attacked Chittor, the capital of Mewar, to marry Padmini the wife of Chittor king Ratna Singh.
- But Padmini and other Rajput women committed Juhar (Juhar is a mass suicide by Jumping into fire, committed by Rajput women to escape from being polluted by others)
- Padmavat is a historical kavya about Padmini episode written by Malik Muhammed Jayasi.
- Malik Muhammed Jayasi was the court poet of Shersha Suri.
- Alauddin Khilji was the first Muslim ruler to at- tack South India.
- Malik Kafur was Alauddin Khilji’s Commander who attacked South India.
- Alauddin Khilji was the most famous ruler of the Khilji Dynasty.
- Alauddin was the Sulthan of Delhi who banned the use of liquor.
- Alauddin had a dream of a World Conquest so he assumed the title ‘Sikhandar-i-sani’ or Second Alexander.
- Demitrius a Bactrian ruler is popularly known as Second Alexander.
- Alauddin abolished the Zamindari System and imposed a tax on cattle.
- He was the first Muslim ruler of Delhi to introduce the measurement of land for tax assessment.
- His market regulations were to get goods at a controlled price to the people of Delhi.
- Alauddin Khilji was the first Sulthan of Delhi who separated religion from politics.
- He was also the first to proclaim ‘‘I am the Khalifa’’.
- Alauddin constructed Alai Darwaza the gateway of Qutub Minar.
- He built the city of Siri, the second of the seven cities of Delhi, near Qutub Minar.
- The first marriage between a Muslim ruler and a Hindu princess was between Alauddin and Kamala Devi, the widow of the ruler of Gujarat.
- Alauddin Khilji was killed by his commander Malik Kafur by poisoning.
- Amir Khusru was the court poet of Alauddin
- Amir Khusru is known as the ‘Parrot of India’
- He is considered the father of the Urdu language and the inventor of Sitar.
- Laila Majnu and Tughlaq Nama are the famous works of Amir Khusru.
- Alauddin khilji was the first Sulthan to maintain a permanent standing army.
- Alauddin Khilji was responsible for the introduction of the postal system in medieval India.
- Mubarak shah khilji was the last ruler of the khilji Dynasty.
- Khilji dynasty came to an end when the Mubarak shah Khilji was killed by Khusrau Khan.
- Some historians consider Khusrau Khan as the last Khilji Sulthan.
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
CTET Success Master Social Science/Studies Paper-2 for Class 6 to 8 2020
|2.||12 YEAR-WISE CTET Paper 2 (Social Science/ Studies) Solved Papers (2011 - 2019) - 2nd English Edition|
CTET Social Science and Its Pedagogy
Sahi Prep hai toh Life Set hai!
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)