13th CoP of Bonn Convention
Key facts: CMS
- CMS: also known as the Bonn Convention.
- Headquarters: Bonn, Germany.
- CMS is the only global and UN-based intergovernmental organisation which is established exclusively for the conservation and management of aquatic, terrestrial and avian migratory species throughout their range.
- CMS provides with a global platform for the conservation as well as sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
- It strives to bring together the States via which migratory animals pass, the Range States and lays the legal framework for internationally coordinated conservatory measures throughout a migratory range.
- CMS being the only global convention specialising in the conservation of migratory species, migration routes and their habitats, CMS complements and co-operates with a number of other international organisations, NGOs and media houses as well as in the corporate sector.
- India has been a Party to the CMS since the year 1983.
- The Conference of Parties (COP) is the decision-making organ of this convention.
- Migratory species are those animals/birds that move from one habitat to the another during different periods of the year, due to wide-ranging factors such as sunlight, food, climate, temperature etc.
- Their movement between habitats can sometimes exceed thousands of kilometres/miles for some migratory birds and mammals.
- Under this convention, migratory species which are threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix I.
- Migratory species which need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention.
India is a temporary home to various migratory birds & animals.
e.g. Amur Falcons, Bar-headed Geese, Black-necked cranes, Marine turtles, Dugongs, Humpbacked Whales, etc.
COP 13 Highlights:
- The theme of COP 13: “Migratory species connect the planet, and We welcome them home”.
- Mascot: GIBI, i.e. Great Indian Bustard: Critically Endangered status, IUCN + Highest protection under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
- Logo: Kolam Art form of Southern India.
- This art is used to depict key migratory species in India like Amur falcon, humpback whale etc.
- Indian subcontinent's major bird flyway network: Central Asian Flyway (CAF): covers areas between the Arctic and Indian Oceans
- India: President for the next three years.
- A draft resolution has been presented by the European Union: EUROBATS Agreement- focuses on insect decline.
- The ‘State of India’s Birds Report 2020’ was released: 79% of Indian species of birds declined in population.
- 3 Migratory Mammals Targeted:
- Gobi Bear:
- found in Gobi-desert of Mongolia
- Critically Endangered, IUCN Red List
- Persian Leopards:
- found in Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia
- Endangered, IUCN Red List
- Urials: Wild sheeps
- Found in Kazakhstan, Pakistan and India
- Vulnerable, IUCN Red List
- Ten new species were added to CMS Appendices at COP13. 7 species were added to Appendix I, which provides the strictest protection: the Asian Elephant, Great Indian Bustard, Jaguar, Bengal Florican, Antipodean Albatross, Little Bustard and the Oceanic White-tip Shark.
- The Urial, Tope Shark and Smooth Hammerhead Shark were listed for protection under Appendix II, which covers those migratory species that have unfavourable conservation status and would benefit from enhanced international cooperation and conservation actions.
- The first-ever report on the Status of Migratory Species which was presented to CMS COP13 depicts that despite a few success stories, the populations of the most migratory species covered by CMS are declining. COP13 agreed that a more detailed and comprehensive review needs to be undertaken to better understand the status of individual species and the major threats they face.
- The COP agreed on a number of cross-cutting policy measures to address threats to migratory species:
- Integrating biodiversity and migratory species considerations into the national energy and climate policy and promote wildlife-friendly renewable energy;
- Strengthen initiatives so as to combat the illegal killing and trade of migratory birds;
- Undertake a review of bycatch levels of rays and sharks, and further implement bycatch mitigation measures for marine mammals in national fishing operations;
- Mitigate the impacts of linear infrastructures such as railways and roads on migratory species;
- Enhancing our understanding of the importance of animal culture and social complexity for the conservation of endangered species;
- To investigate possible trade-in CMS Appendix I species and the implications for their conservation status.
Note: India has signed a non-legally binding MoU with CMS on the conservation and management of:
- Siberian Cranes (1998)
- Marine Turtles (2007)
- Dugongs, (2008).
- Raptors, (2016).
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